IDR - Immune Diagnostics & Research

Original Articles

Efficacy of lytic Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in mice

Joseph Michael Ochieng' Oduor, Nyamongo Onkoba, Fredrick Maloba, Washingtone Ouma Arodi, Atunga Nyachieo

Institute of Primate Research (IPR), Nairobi, Kenya



Introduction: The use of bacteriophages as an alternative treatment method against multidrug-resistant bacteria has not been explored in Kenya. This study sought to determine the efficacy of environmentally obtained lytic bacteriophage against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) bacterium in mice.

Methodology: Staphylococcus aureus bacterium and S. aureus-specific lytic phage were isolated from sewage and wastewater collected within Nairobi County, Kenya. Thirty mice were randomly assigned into three groups: MDRSA infection group (n = 20), phage-infection group (n = 5), and non-infection group (n = 5). The MDRSA infection group was further subdivided into three groups: clindamycin treatment (8 mg/kg; n = 5), lytic phage treatment (108 PFU/mL (n = 5), and a combination treatment of clindamycin and lytic phage (n = 5). Treatments were done at either 24 or 72 hours post-infection (p.i), and data on efficacy, bacterial load, and animal physical health were collected.

Results: Treatment with phage was more effective (100%) than with clindamycin (62.25% at 24 hours p.i and 87.5% at 72 hours p.i.) or combination treatment (75% at 24 hours p.i. and 90% at 72 hours p.i.) (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The results show that the environmentally obtained S. aureus lytic bacteriophage has therapeutic potential against MDRSA bacterium in mice.


MDRSA; efficacy; phage therapy; waste and sewage water

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