Fatal 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in a bone marrow transplant recipient
Keywords:H1N1, influenza, bone marrow transplant, necropsy, immunosuppression, oseltamivir.
Conditions characterized by immunosuppression have been recently reported as risk factors for severe novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection during the current 2009 pandemic. We report clinical and virological findings, antiviral therapy, and post-mortem study of S-OIV in an adult bone marrow transplant recipient. The viral genome was amplified by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab specimen. The patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and eventually succumbed with a severe pulmonary haemorrhage. To the best of our knowledge, the entire clinical/therapy management and pathological examination in a transplant recipient infected with the S-OIV has not been previously documented. The fatal ending in this bone marrow transplant recipient supports recommendations that call for education measures, S-OIV vaccination, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment in the transplant population.
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