Multi-drug resistance profiles and the genetic features of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Bolivia
Keywords:Acinetobacter baumannii, insertion sequences, beta-lactamases, carbapenems, gene, environment
Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is opportunistic in debilitated hospitalised patients. Because information from some South American countries was previously lacking, this study examined the emergence of multi-resistant A. baumannii in three hospitals in Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2008 to 2009.
Methodology: Multiplex PCR was used to identify the main resistance genes in 15 multi-resistant A. baumannii isolates. RT-PCR was used to measure gene expression. The genetic environment of these genes was also analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for key antibiotics and some were determined in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, 1-(1-napthylmethyl) piperazine.
Results: Fourteen strains were found to be multi-resistant. Each strain was found to have the blaOXA-58 gene with the ISAba3-like element upstream, responsible for over-expression of the latter and subsequent carbapenem resistance. Similarly, ISAba1, upstream of the blaADC gene caused over-expression of the latter and cephalosporin resistance; mutations in the gyrA(Ser83 to Leu) and parC (Ser-80 to Phe) genes were commensurate with fluoroquinolone resistance. In addition, the adeA, adeB efflux genes were over-expressed. All 15 isolates were positive for at least two aminoglycoside resistance genes.
Conclusion: This is one of the first reports analyzing the multi-drug resistance profile of A. baumannii strains isolated in Bolivia and shows that the over-expression of theblaOXA-58, blaADC and efflux genes together with aminoglycoside modifying enzymes and mutations in DNA topoisomerases are responsible for the multi-resistance of the bacteria and the subsequent difficulty in treating infections caused by them.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).