Frequency and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens in male outpatients in Argentina
Keywords:antimicrobial susceptibility, community-acquired urinary tract, empirical treatment, infection, uropathogen
Introduction: Knowledge of the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens is important for determining the best treatment option. This study aimed to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial strains isolated from adult male outpatients.
Methodology: Between November 2012 and April 2013, 3,105 community urine samples were analyzed from adult male patients who attended the Laboratorio Hidalgo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporin were tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production using the double-disk synergy test.
Results: Of the 3,105 urine samples analyzed, 791 (25.5%) had significant bacteriuria. The frequency of positive urine cultures increased significantly with patient age. Escherichia coli was isolated most frequently (47.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (13.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.9%). Gram-negative organisms represented 78.8% of urinary pathogens. The highest activities against Gram-negative bacteria were found with imipenem (99.0%), amikacin (98.1%), ertapenem (94.2%), fosfomycin (90.7%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (90.1%). The frequencies of ESBLs among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis were 15.2 %, 22.3%, and 8%, respectively. Fosfomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin were most effective against Gram-positive organisms.
Conclusions: Fosfomycin may be an excellent option for cystitis treatment in patients without risk factors, whereas piperacillin-tazobactam is preferred for the treatment of parenchymatous UTIs, complicated UTIs, and UTIs associated with risk factors. To ensure the optimal selection of antibiotics, physicians should have access to up-to-date information about the local prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.
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