Performance of vancomycin and teicoplanin disk diffusion test in isogenic vancomycin non-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
Introduction: Detection of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is currently problematic. Although the population analysis profile with area under the curve (PAP-AUC) is the gold standard for detecting hVISA strains, this method is time consuming. This study aimed to induce vancomycin non-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and to determine the performance of the vancomycin and teicoplanin disk diffusion test for screening of induced and natural vancomycin non-susceptible isolates.
Methodology: Vancomycin resistance was induced in vitro in methicillin-resistant S. aureus by serial passage in media with increasing vancomycin concentrations. All test isolates were confirmed for their susceptibility to vancomycin by using a PAP-AUC method. The performance of the vancomycin and teicoplanin disk diffusion test for detecting both induced and natural hVISA/VISA isolates was analyzed using the MedCal program version 10.2.0.
Results: The induction test revealed that 42 of 78 MRSA isolates (53.8%) became hVISA and/or VISA. Using 10, 15, 20, 30 µg vancomycin disks and a 30 µg teicoplanin disk, the highest performance (88.9%) for hVISA/VISA detection (71.1%, sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 75% negative predictive value) was obtained when a 20 µg vancomycin disk was used at 1.0 McFarland inoculum for a 24-hour incubation.
Conclusions: The results indicated that using a 20 µg vancomycin disk and bacterial inoculum of 1.0 McFarland is simple to perform and provides a primary result for hVISA/VISA screening within 24 hours.
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