Association of Helicobacter pylori vacA polymorphisms with the risk of gastric precancerous lesions in a Moroccan population
Keywords:Atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, VacA gene
Introduction: Helicobacter pylori infection is the major risk factor of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The vacA gene is one of the most virulence factors of H. pylori and genetic diversity in its s, m, i, and d regions is associated with gastric lesions severity. This study aimed to investigate the association of vacA s, m, i, and d regions with the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in a Casablanca population.
Methodology: A total of 210 patients suffering from gastric lesions (chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia) were enrolled. The type of lesion was diagnosed by histological examination. Detection of H. pylori infection and genotyping of vacA regions were carried out by PCR.
Results: The prevalence of H. pylori was 95%. The most common vacA genotypes were s2 (51.5%), m2 (77%), i2 (60.5%), and d2 (58.5%). VacA s1, m1, and i1 genotypes were associated with a high risk of intestinal metaplasia, while the vacA d1 genotype increases the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The most common vacA combination was s2/m2/i2/d2 (52%), and it was more detected in chronic gastritis. The moderate virulent vacA combination (s1/m2/i1/d1) increases the risk of atrophic gastritis, while the most virulent vacA combination (s1/m1/i1/d1) increases the risk of intestinal metaplasia.
Conclusions: Genotyping of vacA d region might be a reliable marker for the identification of vacA virulent strains that represent a high risk of developing precancerous lesions (atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia).
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