Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Genotype Distribution in Cervical Swab Samples in Istanbul, Turkey


  • Sema Alacam Department of Microbiology, Istanbul Education Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Ayfer Bakir Department of Microbiology, Gulhane Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey



Human papillomavirus, genotype, prevalance, real-time PCR


Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection agent worldwide and, with high-risk (HR) HPV genotypes, is the main factor for development of cervical cancer. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV and distribution of HR-HPV genotypes in cervical swab samples and compare them with demographic and clinical data.

Methodology: Cervical swab samples of 2,285 women between the age of 17 and 76 were assessed between January 2018 and October 2020 in order to obtain the data of Turkey. Fifteen different HR-HPV genotypes were determined using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction test.

Results: HPV was positive in 36.3% (829/2,285) of DNA samples. Prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infection was 40.7%. Of the women, 30.9% (256/829) were infected with HPV16, 14.6% (121/829) with HPV39, and 14.2% (118/829) with HPV51. The most frequently detected genotypes with HPV16 were HPV31, HPV39 and HPV52, respectively. In women with cervical dysplasia, HPV16, 31, and 39 were the most common, and in women with genital warts, HPV16, 59 and 66 were most common, respectively. The highest HR-HPV prevalence was detected in the 17-34 age group (44.1%) (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The prevalence of HR-HPV was 36.3% in this study. High prevalence (44.1%) especially in young women was consistent with findings in literature. The most common HR-HPV genotypes were HPV16, 39 and 51, respectively. Determining the prevalence and genotypes of HR-HPV playing role in the etiology of cervical cancer will be guiding for measures on prevention of cervical cancer and research on preventive vaccines.




How to Cite

Alacam S, Bakir A (2021) Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Genotype Distribution in Cervical Swab Samples in Istanbul, Turkey. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1190–1196. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14663



Original Articles