A Cross-Sectional Study of Patients’ Practices, Knowledge and Attitudes of Antibiotics among Iraqi Population


  • Anmar Al-Taie Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istinye University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Ali N Hussein Pharmacy Department, Osol Aldeen University College, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Zahraa Albasry Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq




Antibiotics misuse, Attitudes, Knowledge, Practice, Self-medication, Iraq


Introduction: The misconception and misuse of antibiotics among the public has been widely outlined to be one of the main reasons for bacterial resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess the practices, level of knowledge and attitudes regarding the rational and self-medication use of antibiotics in the general public in different districts of Baghdad province, Iraq.

Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among 384 participants through an interview using a structured 3-parts questionnaire, consisting of 24 items assessing the demographic characteristics, practices, level of knowledge and attitude towards rational antibiotics use.

Results: 45.8% of the study participants reported self-medication of antibiotics without prescription. Flu/common cold and sore throat represented the majority of medical conditions for antibiotics intake without prescription (44.9%, 31.3%) respectively. Oral amoxicillin (34.1%) was the most common non-prescription antibiotic. 50.3% had education about the rational use of antibiotics. 41.4% reported intake of antibiotics after having medical advice, 44% suggested their antibiotics not to be used by other members, and 52.9% stated the importance of antibiotic education among the public. However, 57% of the respondents had negative attitudes regarding antibiotics use for sore throat/fever, the effectiveness of antibiotics for cold/flu (54.7%) and cough (49.2%), to keep antibiotics for future use (40.9%) and not completing the antibiotic course after feeling well (49.2%).

Conclusions: A widespread use of antibiotics without prescription was reported, providing some crucial gaps and a lower level of practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding the use of antibiotics among a sample of the Iraqi population.




How to Cite

Al-Taie A, Hussein AN, Albasry Z (2021) A Cross-Sectional Study of Patients’ Practices, Knowledge and Attitudes of Antibiotics among Iraqi Population. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1845–1853. doi: 10.3855/jidc.13066



Original Articles