Antimicrobial and Genomic Characterization of Salmonella Nigeria from Pigs and Poultry in Ilorin, North-central, Nigeria

  • Ibrahim A Raufu Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3080-6449
  • Olayiwola A Ahmed Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Abdulfatai Aremu Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • James A Ameh Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Ruth E Timme Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Division of Microbiology, Office of Regulatory Science, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD, United States
  • Rene S Hendriksen WHO Collaborating Center for Antimicrobial Resistance in Food borne Pathogens and European Union Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
  • AbdulGaniyu Ambali Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Keywords: Salmonella enterica Nigeria, MLST, antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, plasmids, genomics

Abstract

Introduction: Non-typhoidal Salmonella are major foodborne pathogens causing serious challenges to public health and food safety worldwide. This study aimed to determine the resistance, virulence genes, sequence type, using multi-locus sequence typing, plasmids and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Nigeria (S. Nigeria) from livestock in Ilorin, North central Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 1,500 samples from pig (feces; n = 600) and poultry (feces, postmortem samples; n = 900) were collected and analyzed between 2014 to 2017. Presumptive Salmonella isolates were characterized by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS).

Results: We recovered nine S. Nigeria serovars. All the isolates harbored a single point mutation parC(T57S) in addition to qnrB19 and the tetA gene. Furthermore, two plasmids, Col(pHAD28) and IncQ1 predicted to encode qnrB19 and tetA genes, respectively, were detected in all the strains. All the isolates belonged to a single sequence type (ST) 4911, the SNP-based phylogeny showed all the isolates to be highly related, in addition two clinical isolates from the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada, collected outside of this study, also fell into this cluster. Twenty virulence genes were identified from Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI), chromosomal and fimbriae loci.

Conclusions: This study highlights the roles of pig and poultry in the emergence and spread of S. Nigeria serovar in Nigeria, sub-Sahara Africa. It also highlighted the importance of WGS in clinical and epidemiological surveillance. There is the need for collaborative research studies to investigate the public health importance of Salmonella enterica serovar Nigeria.

Published
2021-12-31
How to Cite
1.
Raufu IA, Ahmed OA, Aremu A, Ameh JA, Timme RE, Hendriksen RS, Ambali A (2021) Antimicrobial and Genomic Characterization of Salmonella Nigeria from Pigs and Poultry in Ilorin, North-central, Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1899-1909. doi: 10.3855/jidc.15025
Section
Original Articles